During the 19th century the Ottoman Empire showed dynamism in modeling in education, experiences in thought, and other areas in the name of Westernization and modernization. After our first painters were sent abroad to be educated in the field of arts, the fact that Republican era painters have followed in their footsteps has been a turning point for acquiring new art techniques for our country. This process started with the onset of the First World War when young painters that were abroad for education return to Turkey. These painters that were named the Calli Group, started working in various educational institutions and made tremendous contributions to the Turkish art of painting.
Ibrahim Calli is one of the most well-known painters of the Republican era. With his involvement in education in the academy starting with the establishment of the Turkish Republic, he has been quite influential, giving his name to a group consisting of contemporary painters. When his 1923 painting named ‘Zeybekler’ was criticized by Mustafa Kemal, this created a lot of reactions. After this criticism Calli made the changes on the painting that were requested from him, earning him a right to take part in the museum collection.
The best way to understand the fact of art is to analyze works of art. Iconographical analysis, aims to establish stories and parables by establishing a relationship between the subject and the concept using forms that form the structure of art objects and by analyzing the imagined impressions. And through iconological analysis it is aimed to establish the era of the work of art, its historical features, the character of the artist and the influence of the period on the work of art he/she was living in.
Key Words: Turkish art of Painting, Zeybek, Calli Group, Turkish War of Independence, impressionism